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As a kind of self-lubricating material, diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is famous for its excellent tribological properties. Superlubricity state with nearly-vanishing friction achieved with DLC film has enormous potential applications in future mechanical systems. It is pointed out that its superlubricity state is highly related to both the inherent properties of the DLC film and external sliding conditions. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of the superlubricity are complicated, posing uncertainties on their engineering application. This review provides an overview of the influence factors, including film composition, ambient, temperature, normal load, and sliding velocity and their correlations with the anti-friction behaviors of DLC films. These understandings will enable a more effective engineering application of self-lubricating carbon films with excellent tribological properties.
Figure 5. Friction coefficient of a-C:H:Si under different humidities (A) and its lubricating mechanism: (B) layer-like water absorption on the hydroxylated surfaces at moderate relative humidity and (C) liquid-like water absorption under high relative humidity. Adapted with permission from Chen et al. (2013) Copyright 2013, IOP Publishing Ltd.
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Dead to everything except painful pleasure, an unhappily married woman, Nancy, leaves her silent husband behind to meet a fellow broken soul in search of a final release. Louis is a quiet dispenser of pleasure, Nancy is the mechanism set to self-destruct. Beyond therapy, beyond medication, beyond feeling, Nancy is left with the only coping mechanism she ever knew, violence. Together, they journey through the darkest recesses of the human mind before finding solace in each other's arms. For Nancy, solace can only come from death, for Louis, it can only come from Nancy. Nancy's husband Albert is left with an empty house, filled with only the memory of his wife's unbearable loneliness and a final, endless understanding of how bleak life could be. The relationship between Louis and Nancy straddles the thin line between pleasure and pain, crossing over into a film that is as emotional as it is unnerving.
Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology. P2P file sharing allows users to access media files such as books, music, movies, and games using a P2P software program that searches for other connected computers on a P2P network to locate the desired content. The nodes (peers) of such networks are end-user computers and distribution servers (not required).
The early days of file-sharing were done predominantly by client-server transfers from web pages, FTP and IRC before Napster popularised a windows application that allowed users to both upload and download with a freemium style service. Record companies and artists called for its shutdown and FBI raids followed. Napster had been incredibly popular at its peak, spawning a grass-roots movement following from the mixtape scene of the 80's and left a significant gap in music availability with its followers. After much discussion on forums and in chat-rooms, it was decided that Napster had been vulnerable due to its reliance on centralised servers and their physical location and thus competing groups raced to build a decentralised peer-to-peer system.
Peer-to-peer file sharing technology has evolved through several design stages from the early networks like Gnutella, which popularized the technology in several iterations that used various front ends such as Kazaa, Limewire and WinMX before Edonkey then on to later models like the BitTorrent protocol. Microsoft uses it for Update distribution (Windows 10) and online playing games (e.g. the mmorpg Skyforge) use it as their content distribution network for downloading large amounts of data without incurring the dramatic costs for bandwidth inherent when providing just a single source.
Napster and eDonkey2000 both used a central server-based model. These systems relied on the operation of the respective central servers, and thus were susceptible to centralized shutdown. Their demise led to the rise of networks like Limewire, Kazaa, Morpheus, Gnutella, and Gnutella2, which are able to operate without any central servers, eliminated the central vulnerability by connecting users remotely to each other. However, these networks still relied on specific, centrally distributed client programs, so they could be crippled by taking legal action against a sufficiently large number of publishers of the client programs. Sharman Networks, the publisher of Kazaa, has been inactive since 2006. StreamCast Networks, the publisher of Morpheus, shut down on April 22, 2008. Limewire LLC was shut down in late 2010 or early 2011. This cleared the way for the dominance of the Bittorrent protocol, which differs from its predecessors in two major ways. The first is that no individual, group, or company owns the protocol or the terms "Torrent" or "Bittorrent", meaning that anyone can write and distribute client software that works with the network. The second is that Bittorrent clients have no search functionality of their own. Instead, users must rely on third-party websites like Isohunt or The Pirate Bay to find "torrent" files, which function like maps that tell the client how to find and download the files that the user actually wants. These two characteristics combined offer a level of decentralization that makes Bittorrent practically impossible to shut down. File-sharing networks are sometimes organized into three "generations" based on these different levels of decentralization.
The MPAA reported that American studios lost $2.373 billion to Internet piracy in 2005, representing approximately one third of the total cost of film piracy in the United States. The MPAA's estimate was doubted by commentators since it was based on the assumption that one download was equivalent to one lost sale, and downloaders might not purchase the movie if illegal downloading was not an option. Due to the private nature of the study, the figures could not be publicly checked for methodology or validity, and on January 22, 2008, as the MPAA was lobbying for a bill which would compel universities to crack down on piracy, it was admitted by MPAA that its figures on piracy in colleges had been inflated by up to 300%. 2b1af7f3a8