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... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No...
We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.
On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3
Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.
dispersed downwind, with peak concentrations displaced from the urban centre along the main wind direction. The urban-regional surface CO2 flux was calculated for four days in October 2011 by either the Integrative Mass Boundary Layer (IMBL) or the Column Integration method (CIM), dependent on meteorological conditions. The diurnal CO2 flux in London obtained from the aircraft observations ranged from 36 to 71 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 during the day time. This compared well with continuous measurements of CO2 exchange by an eddy-covariance system located in central London. The day-to-day variability observed in the calculated CO2 fluxes responded to the spatial variability of the influence area and emissions that observations were sensitive to. This study provides an example how aircraft surveys in urban areas can be used to estimate CO2 surface fluxes at the urban-regional scale. It also presents an important cross-validation of two independent measurement-based methods to infer the contribution of urban areas to climate change in terms of CO2 emissions that complement bottom-up emissions inventories. References Committee on Methods for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2010), The National Academia Press. DECC (2012),
We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.
"China's internationalization" is in part realized through the dissemination of Chinese publications, such as academic journals. Therefore, editorial proficiency in the English language is of vital importance to the quality of the journals. This article analyzes the results of the two projects sponsored by the General Administration of Press and Publication of the People's Republic of China in 2007 and 2010 respectively, namely the "Analytical Evaluation of Language and Editing Quality of Chinese Academic Journals in English Language Issued in 2006", and the "Evaluation of Publication Quality of the China-Grown English Periodicals Issued in 2009, Sanctioned from 2005 to 2009", and proposes solutions to the problems presented therein.
A total of 17 cases of penetrating neck injury were managed by the otolaryngology team at King's College Hospital over a 3-year period in the 1980s. In April 2010 King's College Hospital became the major trauma centre for South East London. This prospective cohort study compares the incidence, changing demographic features and treatment outcomes of penetrating neck trauma in South East London over the previous 23 years. Data were collected over a 12-month period (April 2010 to March 2011) and a selective management protocol was introduced to standardise initial investigations and further treatment. The past 23 years have seen a 550% increase in the incidence of penetrating neck injuries in South East London, with a marked increase in gun crime. Only 38% of cases underwent negative neck exploration in 2011 compared with 65% in 1987. Selective conservative management based on the absence of haemodynamic instability or radiological findings reduces length of hospital stay, lightens surgical workload and cuts costs without affecting morbidity or mortality. The increased incidence of penetrating neck injury is a reflection of more interpersonal violence rather than a consequence of the larger South East London trauma centre catchment area. Tackling this problem requires focus on wider issues of community prevention. Sharing of data between the four London trauma centres and the police is needed to help prevent interpersonal violence and develop a universal treatment algorithm for other institutions to follow.
Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science, NASA Headquarters, at podium, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers) 2b1af7f3a8